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Talk Session 2-3: Cognitive Neuroscience (1)

Sep. 2, 2017 13:00 PM - 14:30 PM

Room: Archimedes Room
Session chair: Chun-Yu Lin
Neural Mechanisms for Dynamic Auditory Processing: From Sensory Prediction to Motor Coordination

Presentation Number:213.01Time:13:00 - 13:15Abstract Number:0098
Andrew Chang1, Dan Bosnyak1,2, Jennifer Chan1, Yao-Chuen Li3,4, John Cairney3,4,5, Laurel J. Trainor1,2,6
1Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
2McMaster Institute for Music and the Mind, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
3Department of Kinesiology and Infant and Child Health (INCH) lab, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
4Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
5Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
6Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada


Humans constantly process highly dynamic, fleeting information, such as in speech and music, in order to understand its meaning. We conducted a series of studies employing EEG and psychophysical techniques to study the neural mechanisms underlying dynamic auditory information processing. The first study presented identical tones in rhythmic versus arrhythmic sequences; occasionally, one tone was replaced by a target tone with modified pitch. We aimed to investigate how pre-target neural oscillatory activity predictively determines post-target perceptual processes. The results showed that the pre-target oscillatory power in beta band (15 – 25 Hz) entrains to the rhythm of the tone sequence, and that the size of this entrainment attenuates the post-target perceptual novelty response and improves behavioural discriminative sensitivity. These results indicate that beta entrainment reflects the prediction of both the pitch and timing of the upcoming tone, leading to improved perceptual processing. In the second study, given that beta oscillation has been viewed as reflecting an auditory-motor cortical communication channel, we further investigated whether the motor system is required for dynamic auditory processing. We recruited typically developing (TD) children and children with motor deficit (probable Developmental Coordination Disorder, pDCD). We hypothesized that children with pDCD should have larger thresholds for auditory temporal discrimination than TD children if the motor system is required for dynamic auditory processing. Children with pDCD did have larger thresholds, confirming this hypothesis. Preliminary ERP results on mismatch negativity (MMN), a neural response reflecting preattentive perceptual encoding of auditory temporal deviation, showed that MMN was only observed among TD children but those with pDCD, suggesting that the motor system is required to processing dynamic auditory information at a preattentive processing stage. Together, our studies show that neural activity reflecting auditory-motor communication predictively facilitates dynamic auditory information processing, and that the motor system is necessary for this process.


 
Brain fMRI of the Perception of Mandarin Tones

Presentation Number:213.02Time:13:15 - 13:30Abstract Number:0013
Andrew C.-J. Hung1, Raung-Fu Chung3, Chun-Yu Lin2
1Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2Department of Psychology, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
3Department of Applied English, Southern Taiwan University of Science & Technology, Taiwan


This research investigated whether the perception of fundamental frequency (F0) contours of Mandarin Chinese tones is associated with the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when tones were input from the right ear. The issue was explored with a delayed-match-to-sample paradigm, in which adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese discriminated between pair-wise tone tokens, and judged whether they were the same or not. In this study two types of auditory stimuli were used: sinewave pitches (SW) and lexical tones (LX). LX refers to tones with, and SW, tones without, vocalic information. We collected the subjects’ fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) brain images by using a 3 T MRI scanner, while they performed the auditory discrimination task. fMRI results reveal that LX perception, compared with SW perception, had additional activations at the LIFG and more noticeable activations at the RIFG. The additional activations at the L-IFG imply association with the perception of vocalic information of LX. Despite the differences, SW and LX perception had overlaps of activations at the LSTG and the RIFG. Since SW and LX shared F0 contours, the overlaps indicate that the perception of F0 contours of Mandarin tones is involved with the LSTG and the RIFG in the neural network. The involvement of the LSTG supports the phonemic feature of Mandarin tones. However, solely the left hemisphere of the brain cannot achieve the processing of Mandarin tones.


 
Electrophysiological Investigation of Cross-language Translation and Morphological Priming in Different Scripts

Presentation Number:213.03Time:13:30 - 13:45Abstract Number:0109
Myung-Kwan Park1, Wonil Chung1, Say Young Kim1
1English, Dongguk University, Seoul, Korea
2Psychology, National University of Singapore, Seoul, Korea


The Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) assumes asymmetric lexical links between first language (L1) and second language (L2) (i.e., stronger links from L2 to L1 than those from L1 to L2). Previous behavioral studies supported the model showing significant masked priming effects when the target was L2 and the prime was L1, but not when the prime was L2 and the target was L1 (e.g., Jiang, 1999). However, recent ERP studies provided controversial evidence for either supporting (e.g., Hoshino et al., 2010) or countering (e.g., Midgley et al., 2009) the model. In addition, a previous study showed that cross-language morphological priming effect was found exclusively for cognate words in Spanish-English bilinguals (Duñabeitia et al., 2013). The current study examined if the pattern of cross-language translation priming is consistent with the asymmetric links between L1 and L2 and if it occurs via morphological decomposition, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and a masked priming lexical decision paradigm with unbalanced Korean-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, targets were Korean (L1) compound word (e.g., 꿀벌, ²kkwupel,² honeybee), and primes were English (L2) words, either 1) translated whole word (honeybee), 2) translated morphemic constituent (bee), or 3) an unrelated word (e.g., ear). Experiment 2 was the same as Experiment 1, except that the targets were in English (L2) and the primes were in Korean (L1). In behavioral results, the translation priming effect and the morphological priming effect were significant only for L1-L2 (Experiment 2), but not for L2-L1 (Experiment 1). In ERP results, the translation priming effect was found only for L1-L2 on the N150, N250, and reduced N400. The morphological priming effect was found both for L1-L2 and L2-L1 on the reduced N400. Taken together, the results suggest that both cross-language translation priming and morphological priming occurs even between different scripts (between noncognate words), and the effects are stronger when L1 primed L2 as compared to when L2 primed L1. In addition, different time-course between translation priming and morphological priming suggests that cross-language morphological decomposition occurs after translation in bilingual readers.


 
Left Temporal (T5) Instantaneous Amplitude and Frequency Oscillations Correlated with Access and Phenomenal consciousness

Presentation Number:213.05Time:13:45 - 14:00Abstract Number:0087
Vitor Pereira
LanCog Research Group, Centro de Filosofia, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal,

Given the hard problem of consciousness (Chalmers 1995) there are no brain left temporal electrophysiological correlates of the subjective experience (the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field, the sound of a clarinet, the smell of mothball, bodily sensations from pains to orgasms, mental images that are conjured up internally, the felt quality of emotion, the experience of a stream of conscious thought). However, there are brain left temporal electrophysiological correlates of the subjective experience (Pereira 2015). Notwithstanding, as evoked signal, the change in ERPs phase (frequency is the change in phase over time) is instantaneous, that is, the frequency will transiently be infinite: a transient peak in frequency (positive or negative), if any, is instantaneous in EEG averaging or filtering that the ERPs required and the underlying structure of the ERPs in the frequency domain cannot be accounted, for example, by the Wavelet Transform (WT) or the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis, because they require that frequency is derived by convolution (frequency are pre-defined and constant over time) rather than by differentiation (without predefining frequency and accounted that frequency may vary over time). However, as I show in the current original research report, one suitable method for analyse the instantaneous change in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) phase and accounted for a transient peak in frequency (positive or negative), if any, in the underlying structure of the ERPs is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with post processing (Xie et al. 2014) Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (postEEMD).